Flounders and Soles belong to the Families of Hippoglossidae, Paralichthydae, Pleuronectidae, Bothidae and finaly Achiridae. The flatfishes are a very homogenous tribe, so different from all other fishes that no one is likely to mistake any one of them for any other sort of fish. What strikes one first is their flatness; less obvious is the fact that they do not lie on the belly but on one side, right or left. All of the flatfishes have a single long fin on each edge, one the dorsal and the other the anal; they also have well-developed ventral fins which are either on the right-hand edge or on the left-hand edge as the fish lies. Young flatfish look like other fish until one of their eyes migrates to the other side of their body and they begin swimming on their sides near the bottom with their eyeless side down. Flatfish vary greatly in color but their “blind” side is pale and without scales. Males have much elongated pectoral fin rays.
Adult flatfish and Soles are carnivorous, feeding on worms, clams, shrimps and other small bottom-dwelling organisms. Juvenile flatfish are found in shallow bays and estuaries and are preyed upon by herons, gulls, otters, and other fish. These fish are dependent on clean habitats in shallow bays and estuaries when growing up.
Spawning takes place in shallow water from winter to early spring, with females releasing up to a million eggs that float near the surface and are carried along by currents.