Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA to southeastern Brazil, including Bahamas and many of the West Indies.
Adults frequently in channels or holes, over sandy flats, around reefs, and at times over mud bottoms; usually solitary or in small schools; smaller fish tolerate brackish water.
Spawn offshore. During the summer, juveniles are found in large schools especially in the surf zone along sandy beaches. Adults feed on mollusks, crabs, shrimps, and small fishes; juveniles on benthic invertebrates. Excellent food fish.
Highly esteemed game fish caught on light tackle.